Topography is the science of measurement and representation of forms and details visible on the ground, whether natural (including topography and hydrography) or artificial (such as buildings, roads, etc.). Its objective is to determine the position and altitude of any point within a given area. It is based on geodesy for measurement, and shares with cartography the techniques related to the production of plans or maps. Topographic surveys are used by land surveyors to establish property rights associated with a cadaster or land registry.

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