Spatial Analysis of Data
Spatial analysis of data is an ancient and vast field that includes many methodologies, some general and others more specific to a precise thematic field. Classic GIS software is far from being the only tools used in spatial analysis. Some come from geostatistics, for example, or thematic fields such as landscape ecology.
In the field of GIS, sometimes called geoprocessing, these analytical functions are based on the calculation of the spatial properties of the entities. Some are carried out in vector mode, others in raster mode, while others work in or combine the two modes.
Among the general functions that could apply in different areas, we can list the geometric combinations of union and intersection, calculations of Euclidean distance (as the crow flies) as buffer zones, of cost distance or along a network, analyses of contiguity and neighborhood, statistical calculations, algebra of maps, spatial interpolation and geostatistics, analyses of spatial distribution, density and potential.
Some classic and more specific examples are topographic analysis (slope, orientation, morphology, visibility), hydrological calculations, interpretation of remote sensing data…